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Why does my neck hurt?


It's common to experience neck pain or the occasional stiff neck. We rely on the bones, muscles, and ligaments in our necks to support and allow motion in our heads. Pain in the neck area may be a result of an inflammation or injury caused by any number of activities or sudden movement. Sudden jerking of the head that results in neck pain afterward is commonly referred to as "whiplash." Other causes for neck pain can include, but are not limited to playing sports, car accidents, falls, poor prolonged posture, and improper exercise technique. Physical therapy can be a great method of treating both acute and chronic neck pain.


Possible reasons for neck pain:​

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Osteoporosis

  • Fibromyalgia

  • Spondylosis

  • Arthritic changes

  • Degeneration of cervical discs

  • Herniated cervical disc

  • Ruptured or slipped disc

  • Spinal stenosis



Why does my back hurt?


Back pain can be a result of an acute injury or may be associated with a more long-term injury or illness. There are many causes of back pain, but the most common include muscle strains, disc or facet joint irritation, as well as sacroiliac dysfunction. The symptoms from these are often very similar which makes diagnosis and treatment essential, and all can be treated effectively with physical therapy.


Symptoms of back pain:

  • pain or discomfort in upper back or lower back

  • stiffness along the spine

  • sharp aches in the upper back or lower back

  • soreness in the upper back or lower back

  • muscle spasms in the back

  • difficulty maintaining one position

Symptoms of back pain can often be felt in other areas of the body or even radiate to extremities such as arms or legs.

Possible reasons for back pain:

  • Muscle strain

  • Fracture

  • Broken bones

  • Scoliosis

  • Herniated disc

  • Spinal stenosis

  • Degenerative disc disease

  • Spondylolisthesis (slipped vertebrae)

  • Osteoporosis

  • Arthritic changes

  • Weak core and low back muscles

  • Poor sitting or standing posture

  • Facet Joint Syndrome



Why does my Leg/Lower Extremity hurt?

Pain in the upper leg and lower leg are common problems. Leg pain can present itself as a sharp, stabbing sensation or simply a dull ache. Sprains and strains are common causes of leg pain, often from overuse of the leg muscles during sports or other exercise. Pain in the quadriceps, groin, and hamstrings are especially common in athletes who rely on speed in their sport such as sprinters, soccer players, football players, rugby players, lacrosse players, and basketball players. Though quite common, these muscular injuries are often easily treatable by a physical therapist. Other areas in the upper leg and lower leg that are susceptible to pain are the calves, shins, and knees.


Symptoms of leg pain:

  • Pain when stretching or flexing thigh muscles

  • Broken blood vessels on leg

  • Bruising on the leg

  • Leg swelling

  • Weak legs

  • Muscle spasms in the leg


Possible reasons for leg pain:

  • Atherosclerosis

  • Peripheral Vascular Disease

  • Deep Vein Thrombosis

  • Sports injuries

  • Blood clot in leg

  • Arthritis in the leg

  • Osgood-Schlatter disease

  • Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

  • Tendinitis

  • Gout

  • Nerve damage in the leg

  • Muscle cramps (charley horse)

  • Acute leg injury

  • Slipped disc (herniated disc)

  • Varicose veins

  • Dehydration

  • Overuse of leg muscles

  • Torn leg muscle

  • Inflamed leg tendon

  • Shin splints


Why does my ankle hurt?


Physiotherapy helps restore movement and function when someone is affected by injury, illness or disability through exercise, manual therapy, education and advice.

They maintain health for people of all ages, helping patients to manage pain and prevent disease.

The profession helps to encourage development and facilitate recovery, enabling people to stay in work while helping them to remain independent for as long as possible.

Hence, Physiotherapy does the treatment of diseases, injury, deformity caused by orthopaedic, neurological, sports medicine,  post-surgical cardio, pulmonary, Gynea- Obst.,  ENT, medical conditions, etc. by physical methods like exercises, heat, light, laser, magnetic electrotherapy treatment plan based on research and evidence based on the treatment protocol for: ALMOST ALL MEDICAL SPECIALITIES.






Why does my hip hurt?


Hip pain is a common complaint and can be a result of many different reasons. In fact, patients will often report pain in the hips when the root cause is actually from pain in other areas of the body radiating to the hips (for instance, a hernia or groin injury). Though the hip is a resilient joint that can sustain repeated motion and usage, hip injuries often have crippling effects because nearly all body motion involves the hip joint.

Cartilage in the hip can become worn down, hip tendons can become overused, hip muscles can fatigue, and the hip bone itself can be fractured during a fall or similar injury. If you experience hip pain toward the outside area of your hip, the buttock, or thigh it can be due to injuries involving tendons, ligaments, and muscles in the hip region. Another cause of low back pain, buttock pain, hip pain or even leg pain may be attributed to dysfunction in the sacroiliac joint (SI joint). The symptoms of an SI joint dysfunction may feel very similar to pain caused by sciatica.

Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI) is a painful hip condition which is thought of as precursor to the development of hip arthritis. The underlying pathology of FAI is usually resultant from the impingement of bony incongruences at the pelvis and thigh bone. There are many varieties of FAI, but pain is usually located in the front of the hip with pronged sitting or athletic maneuvers. FAI is most commonly experienced by younger people participating in recreational or competitive athletics or dance, but can also be experienced in middle-aged population. 


Symptoms of hip pain:

  • Groin pain

  • Pain inside the hip joint

  • Pain outside the hip joint

  • Pain in the thigh area

  • Pain in the buttocks area

  • Reduced range of motion

  • Limping

  • Pain with prolonged sitting

  • Pain while laying on your side


Possible reasons for hip pain:

  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

  • Osteoarthritis

  • Psoriatic arthritis

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Septic arthritis

  • Tendinitis

  • Hip dislocation 

  • Hip fracture

  • Labral tear in the hip

  • Bursitis

  • Inguinal hernia

  • Pinched nerves

  • Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI)

  • Sports hernia



Why does my foot hurt?


Why does my knee hurt?


Knee pain is very common and can have significant effects on quality of life. Both chronic and acute knee pain can hinder your ability to walk and perform everyday functions. Sitting, standing, climbing stairs, exercising, getting in and out of cars, and many other everyday activities can be affected due to knee pain. Injury, strain, or repetitive motion can be the cause of knee pain and many symptoms can result from excess swelling forming in the knee joint.

Where you actually "feel" the knee pain can vary depending on the structure that sustained damage or strain. Locating the exact spot of your knee pain will help in diagnosing the root cause and subsequent treatment. For instance, if you're experiencing pain in your kneecap, commonly referred to as patellofemoral stress syndrome (PFS), it could be due to either poor "tracking" movement of the kneecap in the groove at the end of the thigh bone, or an inflamed tendon located at the front or side of your knee. Pain on the inside of your knee (the side closest to your other leg) could be a result of an injury to the medial meniscus or medial collateral ligament. If you're experiencing pain on the outside of your knee, the root cause could be iliotibial band (ITB) stress, among injuries to various other structures in the knee area. Lastly, pain in the back of the knee could be a result of an injury to (or strain of) the hamstring tendons. If you are able to accurately explain your pain to doctor or physical therapist, it can help tremendously with diagnosing your knee condition.


Symptoms of knee pain:

  • Redness around the knee joint

  • Knee swelling

  • Weak knees

  • Tender knees

  • Stiff knees

  • Excess fluid in knees

  • Soft kneecaps

  • Warm knees

Possible reasons for knee pain: 

  • Patellofemoral stress syndrome

  • Osteoarthritis

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Tendinitis

  • Bursitis

  • Dislocated knee

  • Baker's cyst

  • Chondromalacia patella

  • Meniscus tear

  • Gout

  • ACL tear

  • Torn ligaments

  • Bone tumors


The most common cause of ankle pain is due to an ankle sprain. Sprained ankles occur when the foot exceeds its normal range of motion and as a result, the ligaments in the ankle joint stretch or tear. Ankle pain and sprains are very common, especially for athletes and anyone who is on their feet a majority of the day. Physical therapy helps to regain the range of motion lost after an ankle sprain along with strengthening the muscles, reducing pain, and ultimately helping patient return to normal activity and sport.

The most common ankle sprain occurs to the lateral (outer) side of the ankle; however, medial (inner) side sprains can happen, as well. Many people suffer subsequent ankle sprains after their initial injury to the area. The chance of reinjuring the same area with a second or third ankle sprain can be reduced with the appropriate physical therapy after the initial incident.


Symptoms of ankle pain:

  • Swelling in the ankle area

  • Throbbing ankle

  • Weak ankle

  • Stiffness in the ankle area

  • Instability in the ankle joint

  • Bruising around the ankle area

  • Inability to bear weight on the ankle

  • Burning pain in ankle


Possible reasons for ankle pain:

  • Sprained ankle

  • Bruised ankle

  • Broken ankle

  • Achilles tendon rupture

  • Bursitis

  • Osteoarthritis

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Gout

  • Stress fracture in the ankle


Foot pain is common, but with treatment you can eliminate your pain and lessen its impact on your quality of life. If your foot pain is mild, you may be able to ease the pain by simply choosing more comfortable, well-cushioned shoes, stretching before exercising, keeping up with foot hygiene, and maintaining a healthy weight. There are some forms of foot pain, however, that require physical therapy for adequate pain relief.

Plantar fasciitis is a form of foot pain that affects the heel and the bottom of the foot. Plantar fasciitis can feel like a stabbing pain in your foot, making it very difficult to walk properly. Sometimes the pain is stronger in the morning when you take your first steps of the day and will often decrease throughout the day. If you stand for a long time throughout the day or stand up suddenly, the foot pain from plantar fasciitis may return. Foot pain of all kind is common for runners and people who wear shoes without sufficient support. Physical therapy can help relieve foot pain and get you back to feeling like yourself again.


Symptoms of foot pain:

  • Pain in arch of foot

  • Pain in toes

  • Heel pain

  • Swollen feet

  • Weakened feet

  • Trouble standing

  • Inability to walk up stairs

  • Pain while walking

  • Pain getting out of bed

  • Pain standing up from a seated position


Possible reasons for foot pain:

  • Toe sprain

  • Bone spurs

  • Plantar fasciitis

  • Achilles tendinitis

  • Avulsion fracture

  • Broken foot

  • Broken toe or toes

  • Stress fractures in the foot

  • Tendinitis

  • Bursitis

  • Gout

  • Achilles tendon rupture

  • Haglund's deformity

  • Osteoarthritis

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Reactive arthritis

  • Osteomyelitis

  • Psoriatic arthritis

  • Raynaud's disease


Why does my arm hurt?


Arm pain can be a very mild experience or an extremely painful one. Arm pain can even be life-threatening as it can be associated with symptoms of a heart attack (myocardial infarction). In instances of a heart attack, other symptoms other than arm pain may be difficulty breathing, pressure on or around the chest area, and nausea. More often, arm pain is caused by an injury to the skin, muscles, joints, or bones in the arm. Arm injuries can happen from playing sports, performing manual labour duties, repetitive overuse, trauma, and improper exercise technique.


The symptoms that can accompany arm pain will depend on the cause. They may include:

  • arm redness

  • stiffness in the arm

  • swelling in the arm

  • swollen lymph nodes under the arm

  • tingling in the arm

  • numbness in the arm

  • a sharp pain in the arm

  • arm muscle weakness

  • pain with gripping / grasping

Other instances of arm pain can be a result of any number of factors including skin injuries, muscle strain, nerve injuries, nerve damage, joint injuries or fractures or injury of the skin, nerves, bones, joints, blood vessels, and soft tissues of the arm.


Possible reasons for arm pain:

  • Skin injury on the arm

  • Pinched nerves in the arm

  • Nerve damage in the arm

  • Arm sprains

  • Elbow tendonitis

  • Wrist Tendonitis

  • Rotator cuff injury

  • Broken bones in the arm

  • Rheumatoid arthritis in the arm joints

  • Angina

  • Torn tendon in the arm or bicep

  • Ruptured bicep tendon

  • Growth plate inflammation

  • Golfer's elbow

  • Tennis elbow

  • Little League Elbow


Why does my shoulder hurt?


The shoulder consists of multiple joints along with muscles and tendons which to allow your arm to move freely. Considered the most mobile joint in the body, the shoulder gets its large range of motion from its bony architecture. The rotator cuff is the most commonly injured structure in the shoulder because its function is to control and stabilize motion at the joint surfaces throughout the many different positions the shoulder can achieve. Any injury to the rotator cuff can cause pain when trying to move your arm around or lift your arm above your head. Pain at night, particularly when rolling onto the affected shoulder is a hallmark of rotator cuff pathology.

Shoulder injuries can occur from a large variety of activities such as manual labour, sports, and even simple repetitive movement. Diseases of the neck, liver, heart, lungs, or gallbladder can also be disguised as pain in the shoulder. While surgery is sometimes required to treat certain conditions of the shoulder, physical therapy can be a highly effective way to treat shoulder pain.


Possible reasons for shoulder pain:

  • Tendon tear in the shoulder

  • Tendon inflammation / degeneration in the shoulder

  • Bursitis

  • Tendinitis

  • Arthritis

  • Instability in the shoulder

  • Fracture or broken bone

  • Impingement

  • Frozen shoulder

  • Labral tear

  • Shoulder dislocation


Why does my hand & wrist hurt?


Hand pain can result from many different causes and can be debilitating in daily life activities. The good news is that the painful symptoms associated with hand pain can be successfully treated and relieved in most instances. Hand pain can develop suddenly or may arise after years of mild, sporadic pain. In cases of hand pain, you may have a hard time making a fist, grabbing or holding on to objects, or even simply rotating your wrist.


Symptoms of hand pain:

  • Hand weakness

  • Hand tingling

  • Numbness of the hand

  • Swollen hands

  • Pain in the thumb

  • Pain in the side of the wrist

  • Difficulty gripping / grasping


Possible reasons for hand pain:

  • De Quervain's tendinitis (also known as De Quervain's tendinosis)

  • Rheumatoid arthritis in the hand

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

  • Cubital Tunnel Syndrome - Ulnar Nerve Transposition

  • Dupuytren's Contracture

  • Injuries to the extensor or flexor tendon

  • Wrist tendonitis

  • Wrist sprain

  • Fractured bones in the hand

  • Fractured bones in the finger(s)

  • Cervical radiculopathy



Arthritis symptoms can affect an individual on a daily basis. Physical therapy is a conservative, non-invasive and effective way to treat arthritis, which typically affects the articulating joints of the body such as the hip, knee, shoulder, and hand. Arthritis can also affect the spinal column known as degenerative disc disease (DDD). The primary focus of therapy is to regain overall range of motion and flexibility to help improve joint mobility as well as increase strength and endurance for improved independence with daily activities.


This is accomplished in the following ways:

  • Flexibility: These exercises help improve overall joint mobility and muscle flexibility.

  • Strength: In addition to increasing flexibility, muscle strength is important to provide stability to the affected joint. Not only is muscle used to move a joint, but it also acts as a "shock absorber".

  • Endurance: Muscle endurance is another important factor. Endurance is the muscle's ability to perform an activity over an extended period of time. Strength usually diminishes due to a lack of endurance. With increased endurance strength is preserved. As a result, an individual can tolerate daily activities for an extended period of time.


Why does my head hurt?


At some point in life, most of us will deal with headaches and other pain under the eyes, at the top of the neck, and in our jaw. The pain can last for a few days; however, more commonly it will last for under an hour. Treatment for pain in your head depends on the root cause. The common types of headaches are cluster headaches, migraines, tension headaches, and Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia.

If you have a neurological disorder or have suffered an injury that's affected your nervous system, you may struggle with movement, balance, coordination, or even loss of function. Our physical therapists can work with you to improve your motor control, strength, flexibility, and range of motion. We'll focus on restoring function so you can remain active and independent. Come visit one our facilities and you'll be impressed by our compassionate staff and positive attitude. Therapists with special training in neurological disorders are available to address any impairments you may have from the following conditions:

  • Multiple sclerosis

  • Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD)

  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

  • Muscular dystrophy

  • Peripheral neuropathy

  • Post-Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)

  • Post-Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

  • Foot drop

  • Bell's Palsy


Possible reasons for head pain:

  • Trauma to the back of the head

  • Stress

  • Neck tension or tight neck muscles

  • Osteoarthritis

  • Tumors in the neck

  • Cervical disc disease

  • Poor posture

  • Blood vessel pathology

  • Infection

  • Gout

  • Diabetes

  • Alterations in sleep schedule

  • Lack of sleep


How vestibular rehab works?

Balance dysfunction can occur at any age and can be influenced by many factors. In more severe cases, it can result in falls, and the development of a ‘fear of falling’. When deficits are identified from the assessment process, targeted retraining programs can be developed to improve balance and reduce the risk of falls. With both balance disorders and virtigo, physiotherapy can significantly improve the quality of life of patients, maintain mobility and independent living.


Causes & risk factors of vestibular disorders:  Common disorders that can affect the function of the vestibular system are:


Vestibular disorders affect about 35% of adults over the age of 40 Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)-

  • Vestibular Neuritis

  • Vestibular Labyrinthitis

  • Meniere's Disease

  • Ototoxicity

  • Perilymph fistula

  • Acoustic Neuroma

  • Stroke (CVA)

  • CHI/TBI (Closed Head Injury / Traumatic Brain Injury)

  • Post-Concussion Syndrome  

  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)


Symptoms of vestibular issues:

Symptoms for vestibular dysfunction can be brought about my many forms of pathology, and can be differentiated by their anatomic origin as either central (within the brain), or peripheral (within the vestibular apparatus in the inner ear). Symptoms of vestibular issues include:

  • Vertigo

  • Dizziness

  • Imbalance

  • Lightheadedness

  • Disequilibrium

  • Oscillopsia (visual changes while moving)

  • Nystagmus

  • Ocular tracking difficulty and eye fatigue

  • Nausea

  • Falls

  • Difficulty walking

Symptoms of a dysfunctional vestibular system can last a few minutes to a few hours or more and may come and go.

How Total Joint Replacement Program Works?

Your recovery from joint replacement surgery should start before the operation even takes place. Having a joint replacement is an important decision and can dramatically decrease joint pain and improve your quality of life. However, there are a lot of uncertainties when going into surgery - largely about what happens immediately after your surgery takes place.

Pre-operative physical therapy allows you to meet your rehabilitation team and learn the essentials to ensuring a great recovery after your surgery. Research has shown that attending as little as one pre-operative physical therapy session can help reduce the amount of post-surgical care and lead to faster and more efficient recoveries.

Here are a few benefits of our Total Joint Replacement program:


  • Meet your physical therapy team and visit the clinic

  • Learn important home exercises to get a head-start on your recovery

  • Learn and practice using a walker and cane, if necessary (it's easier to learn before than it is after surgery)

  • Assess and identify any balance impairments Improve balance to enhance safety and avoid hospital readmission

  • Ready yourself to go home from the hospital rather than to a separate facility

  • Get your questions answered about post-operative rehabilitation

  • Plan your post-operative goals with your physical therapist Faster, more efficient rehabilitation

Schedule your appointment today at a Health Focus Physio Therapy for you to learn more about our Joint Replacement program.





Sacroiliac joint/pelvic

  • Sacroiliac joint arthrosis/ subluxation

  • Pelvic fracture

  • Pain in pelvic area

  • Cocxydynia


  • Sinusitis

  • Post dental stiffness

  • TM joint pain

  • Bell's and facial palsy

Respiratory conditions

  • Asthma

  • Bronchitis

  • Pneumonia

  • Pre and post-surgery

  • Breathing problem

General conditions

  • Wound

  • Mastectomy Hematoma

  • Lymphoedema

  • Posture

  • Post cancer pain

  • Amputation

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